Frequently Asked Questions

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(3) ESP in the ganzfeld

Ganzfeld ("whole field") technique was developed to quiet this external noise by providing a mild, unpatterned sensory field to mask the noise of the outside world. In the typical ganzfeld experiment, the telepathic "sender" and ... More

(4) Remote Viewing

The ganzfeld technique indicates that information can be exchanged mentally after the receiver is placed in an altered state of consciousness (the ganzfeld). The remote viewing experiment, in one of its many forms, investigates whether information can be ... More

(5) Presentiment Studies

These studies measure physiological parameters, such as skin resistance, heart rate, pupil size, EEG, fMRI results, and other variables to look at unconscious precognition. Typically, they involve the randomized application of stimuli, which may involve ... More

Technical Note: Methodologies

Parapsychology uses methods commonly employed in other scientific disciplines. Laboratory studies use research methods from psychology, biology and physics. Field research uses methods from sociology and anthropology. There are plenty of textbooks on ... More

Common criticisms about parapsychology

Constructive criticism is essential in science and is welcomed by the majority of active psi researchers. Strong skepticism is expected, and many parapsychologists are far more skeptical about psi than most scientists realize. However, it is not ... More

Common criticisms about parapsychology: Criticism 1

Response: These issues have been addressed in detail by meta-analytic reviews of the experimental literature . The results unambiguously demonstrate that successful experiments cannot be explained away by these criticisms. In fact, research by Harvard ... More

Common criticisms about parapsychology: Criticism 2

Response: Twenty years ago, this criticism was a fairly common retort to claims of psi phenomena. Today, with advancements in many scientific disciplines, the scientific worldview is rapidly changing, and the basic limiting principles are constantly ... More

Common criticisms about parapsychology: Criticism 3

Response: When many people talk about a repeatable psi experiment, they usually have in mind an experiment like those conducted in elementary physics classes to demonstrate the acceleration of gravity, or simple chemical reactions. In such experiments, ... More

Why is parapsychology so controversial?

Parapsychology has remained controversial, even with substantial, persuasive, and scientifically palatable results, for four main reasons: First , the media and much of the public often confuse parapsychology with sensational, unscientific beliefs and ... More

What is the state-of-the-evidence for psi?

To be precise, when we say that "X exists," we mean that the presently available, cumulative statistical database for experiments studying X, provides strong, scientifically credible evidence for repeatable, anomalous, X-like effects. With this ... More

What is the state-of-the-theory for psi?

Opinions about mechanisms of psi are wide-ranging. Because the field is multidisciplinary, there are physical theories, psychological theories, psychophysical theories, sociological theories, and combinations of these. On one end of the spectrum, the ... More

Where can I get more information?

Be sure to read the books, The Conscious Universe and Entangled Minds , both by Dean Radin, They provide an excellent summary of some of the research in the field, including the use of statistics and meta-analysis. There is also an excellent, multimedia ... More

Are ghosts real?

The prevailing view today is that many of the mysterious physical effects historically attributed to ghosts (disembodied spirits), such as movement of objects, strange sounds, enigmatic odors, and failure of electrical equipment, are actually poltergeist ... More

Are poltergeists real?

Poltergeists (from the German, "noisy ghosts") usually manifest as loud sounds, strange electrical effects, and the unexplained movement of objects. At one time, these phenomena were thought to be due to ghosts, but after decades of ... More

Why aren't psychics breaking the bank in Las Vegas casinos?

The theoretical house advantage for some casino games is fairly small, e.g., about 1% for optimally-played craps. This means that over the long term, a good craps player might get back 99 cents for each dollar they play. If they hit a "hot ... More
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